Видове въглехидрати

Въглехидратите са макроелементи съдържащи се в храните. Те се явяват основен източник на енергия за човешкото тяло. За разлика от белтъците и мазнините, те не са есенциални, поради факта, че се използват предимно като източник на енергия. Мазнините, както и белтъците са следващият избор  на източник на енергия за тялото, но въглехидратите, въпреки че доставят по-малко енергия(въглехидратите съдържат 3,70kcal , протеините 4 kcal а мазнините 9 килокалории на грам), са предпочитания източник на енергия от тялото поради факта, че се разграждат доста по-бързо и лесно. Ако приемате повече от колкото трябват на тялото за използване на енергия,  ще се натрупат под формата на подкожни мазнини. И така, когато организмът се нуждае от енергия, тоест има дефицит на гликогеновите запаси в черния дроб и мускулите, ще се обърне към мазнините. Те  се трансформират в глюкоза, при което се получава така желания ефект на изчистване на подкожните мазнини.

Храни богати на въглехидрати: хляб, ориз, картофи, леща,фасул, спагети/макарони, мед, захар, шоколад, банани, грозде, пъпеш, царевица  и много други. Всъщност богати на въглехидрати източници са и много напитки: водка,уиски,бира, натурални сокове, подсладени напитки и др.

 

Каква е разликата между сложни и прости, бързи и бавни?

Често фразите „бързи въглехидрати“ и „прости въглехидрати“ се считат за едно и също нещо, както и „бавни“ и „сложни“. Всъщност има разлика. Според бързината си въглехидратите се определят по-скалата на гликемичен индекс, като колкото е по-висок той, толкова по-бързо се усвоява даден въглехидрат. От друга страна, дали са сложни или прости зависи от тяхната структура. Простите въглехидрати се делят на монозахариди,  дизахариди,  олигозахариди. Сложните въглехидрати са изградени от много еднакви или различни  монозахаридни единици . За това, не всички прости въглехидрати са бързи и не всички сложни въглехидрати са бавни. Например, белият ориз е бърз въглехидрат, но в същото време е сложен.

Гликемичния индекс е скала, по която се определя бързината на разграждане на даден въглехидрат, постъпил в организма, до глюкоза. За сравнение се взема глюкозата, която е с гликемичен индекс 100 и спрямо нея се определят останалите въглехирати. Ако даден въглехидрат има ГИ 70, то означава, че за същото количество въглехидрат той ще увеличи 70% кръвната захар спрямо същото количество глюкоза. За нисък гликемичен индекс се взимат храни със ГИ под 40, храни между 40-60 се взимат за среден ГИ, а храни над 60 са със висок ГИ.

Таблица с храни и техния гликемичен индекс

гликемичен индекс

Бързи въглехидрати

Бързи въглехидрати,храни с висок ГИ , се усвояват много по-бързо от останалите  и  също толкова бързо повишават нивото на кръвната захар и секрецията на инсулин. Инсулинът регулира концентрацията на глюкоза в кръвта, стимулира протеиновият синтез (изграждането на мускулни тъкани и др), пречи на процеса на окислението на мазнини (разграждането им) и подтиква образуването на мастни тъкани. Източници на бързи въглехидрати са: мед, бял хляб, банан, фруктоза, картофи, диня, бял ориз и др.

Бавни въглехидрати

Бавните въглехидрати, се усвояват по-бавно от другите, те са причиследни към храните с ГИ по-малък от 40.  Те дават енергия за дълъг период от време, предотвратяват прекалено високото ниво на инсулин и държат тялото ни сито за по-дълго време. Източници на бавни въглехидрати са:боб, леща, прясно мляко, пълнозърнест корнфлейкс, зеленчуци, ябълки и др.

Сложни въглехидрати

Сложните въглехидрати при метаболизирането си в организма, запълват гликоген депата в мускулите и черния дроб. Те са източник на фибри, витамини и минерали.
Фибрите са въглехидрати, които не се усвояват от организма, но пък са нужни за доброто храносмилане и усвояване на храната и доброто състояние на стомашно-чревния тракт. Сложни въглехидрати се съдържат в:  овес, ориз, картофи, зърнени храни, пълнозърнести тестени изделия, макаронени изделия, бобови култури и  зеленчуци.

Прости въглехидрати

Простите въглехидрати са монозахариди,дизахариди и олигозахариди .Те имат такава структура, че при разграждането си, гликогена не може да достигне до черния дроб, а само до мускулите. Ако количеството на приетите въглехидрати е по-голямо от необходимото, се натрупват под формата на мазнини.Обикновено те се разграждат бързо и най-често са с нисък ГИ.

 

Кога трябва да ядем бързи и кога бавни въглехидрати и в какви количества?

Кога трябва да ядем бавни и сложни въглехидрати?
Бавните въглехидрати трябва да се приемат като основен източник на енергия в храненията. Количеството,  в което трябва да се приемат строго зависи от целите на всеки човек, но е прието да не се пада под 2 грама на килограм телесна маса, защото това ще доведе до здравословни проблеми. Те са също толкова важни колкото мазнините и белтъчините за тялото.  Поддържат организма ни сит и  ни позволят да тренираме по-дълго и по-интензивно, тъй като се разграждат по-бавно.

Кога трябва да ядем бързи въглехидрати?
Бързите въглехидрати се използват основно за моменти на тежък физически стрес, като те се явяват бърз и по-достъпен източник на енергия. Те запълват празните гликоген депа в мускулите и бързо възстановяват пораженията, настъпили в следствие на натоварването. Ако не се доставят, тялото започва да използва мускулната тъкан и мазнините като източник на енергия. За това е важно, да се приемат възможно най-скоро след тренировка, с доза бърз белтък (суроватъчен протеин). Освен това, те влияят пряко върху нивата на инсулина, които както вече споменахме, играе роля при  изграждането на мускулите. Неговото ниво спада по време на тренировка и физическо натоварване.

By Admin

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